The alkalinity of water is a measurement of its buffering capacity. It is the ability of a solution to neutralise acid or to resist resist acidification. pH in contrast is a logarithmic scale for expressing Hydrogen (H+) ion concentration. A solution of pH 7.0 is considered to be neutral, whereas a solution above pH 4.5 is considered to have alkalinity.
Because typically a premeasured sample whose alkalinity is to be determined has a strong acid titrant added to it, alkalinity is therefore a measurement of the amount of strong acid required to neutralise all dissolved bases to a designated titration end point. Alkalinity is expressed in terms of its base concentration, usually as equivalent mg/l CaCO3. There are 3 main measurements of alkalinity:
|Total Alkalinity (T)||Bromocresol Green / Methyl Red||Alkalinity above pH 4.5|
|Phenolphthalein Alkalinity (P)||Phenolphthalein||Alkalinity above pH 8.3|
|Hydrate Alkalinity (OH)||Phenolphthalein||OH- Alkalinity above pH 8.3|
Below pH 4.5 there is said to be no Total Alkalinity; and below pH 8.3 there is said to be no Phenolphthalein or Hydrate Alkalinity.
Both Bromocresol Green / Methyl Red and Phenolpthalein are indicators are specified in the American Public Health Association (APHA)'s Standard Methods, Method 2320 B for the determination of Total Alkalinity and Phenolphthalein Alkalinity respectively.
The term 'Alkalinity' is usually used to refer to Total Alkalinity (T Alkalinity). Methyl Orange Alkalinity is often referred to as M Alkalinity, and the term is frequently used interchangeably with T Alkalinity. Total Alkalinity titrations may also be carried out using a pH meter rather than an indicator solution. Phenophthalein Alkalinity is usually abbreviated to P Alkalinity. Hydrate Alkalinity is also known as Hydroxide Alkalinity, OH Alkalinity or just O Alkalinity.
Alkalinity of Natural Waters
Alkalinity of natural waters is typically a combination of bicarbonate, carbonate, and hydroxide ions, the proportions of which vary depending on pH. The alkalinity of natural waters is determined by the bedrock and soil through which it passes through containing these compounds, typically limestone, and the action of chemical weathering. For example, waters flowing through limestone regions tends to have a higher alkalinity and waters flowing through granite, conglomerate and sandstone regions tend to have a lower alkalinity.
As pH rises, more bicarbonate will change to carbonate. Sewage and wastewaters usually exhibit higher alkalinities due to the presence of silicates and phosphates. Bicarbonate and Hydroxide Alkalinity cannot co-exist in general terms and occur at different pHs. At pH 7, the proportion of carbonate is very small.
|1.0 - 4.5||Free mineral acidity, CO2 escapes (i.e. no HCO3-, CO3=)|
|4.5 - 9.6||Bicarbonate alkalinity (HCO3-)|
|8.3 - 14.0||Carbonate alkalinity (CO3=)|
|9.5 - 14.0||Hydroxide alkalinity (OH-)|
At or below pH 4.5, all bases have been reduced to water (and CO2). Waters between pH 4.5 and 8.3 contain weak acids such as Carbonic acid, and below pH 4.5 contain mineral acids. Carbon dioxide and Carbonic acid exist in a chemical equilibrium in solution.
Bicarbonate salts of calcium, magnesium and sodium, when heated, typically in solution to boiling point, break down to carbonate salt, CO2 and water. CaCO3 and MgCO3 are insoluble, so they are precipitated out of solution. Mg(HCO3)2 and The Ca(HCO3)2 salts are sometimes therefore referred to as 'temporary hardness' as they can be removed from solution by boiling and filtering, thereby lowering the alkalinity of the solution (assuming no change in total volume).
Hydrate Alkalinity Testing
Phenolphthalein Alkalinity is the sum of all Carbonate (CO3=), Bicarbonate (HCO3-) and Hydroxide (OH-) alkalinity above pH 8.3. Hydrate Alkalinity on the other hand is just the Hydroxide (OH-) component of alkalinity above pH 8.3.
The CHEMetrics K-4710 Hydrate Alkalinity test kit employs the neutraliser solution A-4701 containing Barium Chloride (BaCl2) that inhibits alkalinity interference from CO3=, HCO3- and one third of phosphate (P04-) and silicate alkalinity. To perform a test for P Alkalinity, use the K-4710 Hydrate Alkalinity Test Kit as normal but without adding the BaCl2 to the sample.
There are a total of three Total Alkalinity and one Hydrate Alkalinity Test Kits in the CHEMetrics range. Click here for more information.
By determining both the T and P Alkalinity values of a sample, an analyst can actually calculate the individual concentrations of CO3=, HCO3- and OH- (which are the components that are typically attributed to a sample's alkalinity). Simply choose the relevant equation from table below. This table presupposes incompatibility of OH- and HCO3- alkalinities, which is 'almost' correct. There is in reality a tiny overlap in pH transition between the two.
T Alkalinity ≈ 2 [CO3=] + [HCO3-] + [OH-]
P Alkalinity ≈ [CO3=] + [OH-]
Source: APHA Standard Methods, 22
If you want to ascertain the combined concentration of CO3= (carbonate) and HCO3- (bicarbonate) in a sample (i.e. when pH is between 8.3 and 9.6), then you can perform the T Alkalinity test and P Alkalinity test (Hydrate Alkalinity test but without the BaCl A-4701 inhibitor solution), convert the hydrate reading to CaCO3 (NaOH can be converted to CaC03 by multiplying by 2.5), deduct one from the other. You then have a figure for combined bicarbonate and carbonate as CaCO3.
T - P alkalinity ≈ [HCO3-] + [CO3=]
- APHA (1997). Standard Methods, 22nd ed., Method 2320 B. Washington DC: APHA.
- CHEMetrics, Inc. (2018). Total Alkalinity Titrets Kit. Rev.11. Calverton, VA: CHEMetrics, Inc.
- CHEMetrics, Inc. (2018). Hydrate Alkalinity Titrets Kit. Rev.9. Calverton, VA: CHEMetrics, Inc.